Ambassador Robert E. Hunter
Robert Hunter is Senior Fellow at the Center for Transatlantic Relations at the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies, in Washington DC. From 2011-2012, he was Director of the Center for Transatlantic Security Studies at the National Defense University (NDU) and from 1998-2011 was Senior Advisor at the RAND Corporation in Arlington, Va. He is also Chairman of the Council for a Community of Democracies and a member of the Secretary of State's International Security Advisory Board. Previously, he was Senior International Consultant to Lockheed-Martin Overseas Corporation (1998-2012) and a member of the Senior Advisory Group to the US European Command.
From July 1993 to January 1998, Robert Hunter was U.S. Ambassador to NATO and represented the U.S. to the Western European Union. He was a principal architect of the “New NATO” and led the North Atlantic Council in implementing decisions of the 1994 and 1997 NATO Summits, in obtaining nine air-strike decisions for Bosnia, and in securing NATO approval for the Implementation Force (IFOR) and the Stabilization Force (SFOR). He twice received the Pentagon’s highest civilian award, the DoD Medal for Distinguished Public Service and has been decorated by eight European countries, including the French Legion d'Honneur.
From 1981-1993, Ambassador Hunter was at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, including as Vice President for International Politics. He was also Special Advisor on Lebanon to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and Lead Consultant to the National Bipartisan Commission on Central America. He was co-founder of the Center for National Policy and an organizer of the National Endowment for Democracy. From 2003-2008, he was President of the Atlantic Treaty Association.
Throughout the Carter Administration, he served on the National Security Council staff, as Director of West European Affairs (1977-79) and then as Director of Middle East Affairs (1979-81). He was also a member of the U.S. negotiating team for the West Bank and Gaza, directed the 1978 NATO Summit, and was a principal author of the Carter Doctrine for the Persian Gulf. Earlier, he was Foreign Policy Advisor to Senator Edward M. Kennedy (1973-77), Senior Fellow at the Overseas Development Council (1970-73), Research Associate at the International Institute for Strategic Studies in London (1967, 1968-69), and foreign and domestic policy advisor to Vice President Hubert Humphrey (1968-1970). He served on the White House staff (health, education, welfare, labor) in the Johnson Administration (1964-65) and in the Navy Department on the Polaris Project.
Ambassador Hunter was educated at Wesleyan University (BA–1962) and the London School of Economics (PhD in International Relations-1969; Fulbright Scholar). He has taught at LSE, Georgetown, Johns Hopkins-SAIS, Washington College (Louis L. Goldstein Chair in Public Policy), and George Washington. He serves on the boards of the Atlantic Council, the European Institute, and Wesleyan University (emeritus). He belongs to the Council on Foreign Relations, APSA, IISS, and the American Academy of Diplomacy (Executive Committee).
Among his more than 850 publications, Ambassador Hunter is author of Education Never Ends; Security in the Persian Gulf; Integrating Instruments of Power and Influence (co-author); Requirements of a Palestinian State: Security (co-author); The European Security and Defense Policy: NATO’s Companion or Competitor?; Security in Europe; Presidential Control of Foreign Policy; The Soviet Dilemma in the Middle East; and Organizing for National Security. He has written for Foreign Policy, Foreign Affairs, The Washington Quarterly, and many other journals; plus chapters in books and “op-ed” articles in the Los Angeles Times, New York Times, Washington Post, and many other newspapers. He appears regularly on radio and television in the U.S. and abroad and has given speeches in more than 20 countries. He has played a senior national policy role in 8 presidential campaigns and written speeches for 3 Presidents and 3 Vice Presidents.
Dr. Shireen T. Hunter
Shireen T. Hunter is Visiting Professor at the Georgetown University Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding. Until 2005, she was Director of the Islam Program at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington, D.C., with which she has been associated since 1983 (currently Distinguished Scholar). She is also Consultant to the RAND Corporation and was Academic Fellow at Carnegie Corporation (2000-2002). From 1993-97, Dr. Hunter was Visiting Senior Fellow at the Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS) in Brussels, and also directed its Mediterranean Programme.
While at CSIS in the 1980s, she taught courses as Professorial Lecturer at Georgetown University, Adjunct Professor at George Mason University, and holder of the Louis L. Goldstein Chair at Washington College (1989). Earlier, Dr. Hunter was Guest Scholar at the Brookings Institution and Research Fellow at the Harvard University Center for International Affairs (CFIA). From 1966-1978, she was a member of the Iranian Foreign Service, serving abroad in London and Geneva. She attained the rank of Counselor and served from time-to-time as Charge d'Affaires of the Iranian Mission to the United Nations in Geneva.
Dr. Hunter was educated at Teheran University (BA and all-but-thesis for a doctorate in international law), the London School of Economics (MSc in international relations), and the Institut Universitaire de Hautes Etudes Internationales in Geneva (PhD in international relations).
Her books include: Iran's Foreign Policy in the Post-Soviet Era (Praeger, 2010); Islam in Russia: The Politics of Identity and Security (with Jeffrey Thomas and Alexander Melikishvili), M.E. Sharpe, 2004. Islam: Europe’s Second Religion (editor, Praeger, 2002): The Future of Islam-West Relations: Clash of Civilizations or Peaceful Coexistence? (CSIS/Praeger, 1998); Central Asia Since Independence (CSIS/Praeger, 1996); The Transcaucasus in Transition: Nation-Building and Conflict (CSIS/Westview Press, 1994); Iran After Khomeini (Praeger, 1992); Iran and the World: Continuity in a Revolutionary Decade (IUP, 1990); The Politics of Islamic Revivalism (editor, IUP, 1988); and OPEC and the Third World: Politics of Aid (Indiana University Press, 1984).
Her major monographs include The Algerian Crisis: Origins, Evolution, and Implications for the Maghreb and Europe (CEPS Paper No. 66, 1996). Turkey at the Crossroads: Islamic Past or European Future? (CEPS Paper No. 63, 1995); Gulf Cooperation Council (editor, CSIS, 1984); Internal Developments in Iran (editor, CSIS, 1985); and The PLO after Tripoli (editor, CSIS, 1984).
Dr. Hunter is the author of many book chapters, articles in many leading journals -- including Foreign Affairs, Foreign Policy, Middle East International, Washington Quarterly, and SAIS Review -- and she has written many op-ed articles for various newspapers, including the Christian Science Monitor and the Los Angeles Times.
Dr. Hunter has lectured widely in the United States and abroad. She has testified before Congressional Committees (House Foreign Affairs, House Defense Appropriations) and the Helsinki Commission, and has traveled extensively in Europe, the Middle East, the former Soviet Union (Russia, Caucasus, Central Asia), China, and Japan. Dr. Hunter belongs to the Council on Foreign Relations. She has lived in the United States since 1978, and became a U.S. citizen in1985. She is fluent in English, French, Persian, and Azeri Turkish, and has a working knowledge of Italian and Arabic.